1.  Pathology of Construction

Damage to columns, damage to shear walls, damage to beams, damage to beam-column joints, damage to slabs and damage to foundations.  Empirical method of estimating the residual strength and stiffness of components and the structure.


2. Strategy and Process of Redesign

Redesign as a multi-dimensional problem, a strategy for intervention, structural strengthening as a whole.


3. Materials and Technologies of Interventions.

Special types of concrete, polymer adhesives, repair mortars, gluing steel sheets or fibre reinforced polymers, shear links/anchors, anchors and welding new reinforcing bars.


4. The Basis for Redesign

Material safety factors, monolithic correction factors, design of metal connections, anchors and new welded reinforcement, designing the interface between old and new concrete.


5. Repair-Strengthening Structural Elements

Repair-strengthening of columns, repair-strengthening of shear walls, repair-strengthening of beams and slabs, repair-strengthening of beam-column joints and repair-strengthening of foundations.