·       Masonry types

Types and grouping of masonry units. Types of mortars and specifications

·       Mechanical properties of Masonry

Compressive, flexural and shear strength. Modulus of Elasticity. Walls under compressive and/ or later loads.

·       Structural elements of buildings

Types of floors and sills. Types, function, failure and strengthening measures of arches, vaults and domes

·       Types and vulnerability of existing buildings frequent found in Greece

Classification of building stock and relation between structural type and vulnerability

·       Plain, Confined and Reinforced masonry.

Specifications according to EN 1996 and EN 1998

•    Design of masonry according to Eurocode 6

Unreinforced and reinforced masonry walls  under compressive or/and in-plane or out-of-plane loading

•    Analysis methods and seismic behavior of masonry buildings

The available methods for the analysis of masonry structures are examined and their ability to predict the seismic behavior of existing structures is verified by comparing the results with the developed seismic damage.

•    Damage of masonry structures

Damage generated of structural faults as well as of soil effects. Seismic vulnerability of masonry structures

•    Strengthening techniques

Fields of application and execution of techniques like repointing, grouting, and sprayed concrete. Structural details for the construction of horizontal diaphragms and insertion of tendons.

•    Repairs and Strengthening of existing masonry structures

Details on the selection and execution of the proper repairing or retrofitting works depending on the type of damage and masonry type

•    Effectiveness and cost of strengthening measures

Effectiveness criterion, effectiveness and relation with the cost of retrofitting measures